Manifestation of Culture in Traditional Architecture of Iranian

 

Culture has huge effect on designing architecture form and space and also on quality of resident lives. Architecture applied in the places should be based on recognition of resident culture so as to satisfy their mental and physical needs, otherwise they would not be able to communicate with the space and feel pleasant sense of belonging. Although most designers focus on significance and influence of culture on building, they simply ignore the essence of culture and its impact on designs. In this research, in order to recognize how Islamic Iranian culture components manifest in the body of traditional house architecture, old houses in Kashan by using case study and descriptive and analytical method are studied. Considering culture elements including values, national norms and customs, myths and religious beliefs, spatial hierarchy, internal and external consistency, privacy, and communication with the nature and type of planning as the main criteria, this conclusion can be drawn that despite of all functional and regional limitations, architects pay adequate attention to resident culture and its impact on the deepest layers of their mind. Such researches are truly essential to survive contemporary housing pattern which is constantly falling into decline under the municipal laws.

 

Monument of Tehran

The tower is part of the Azadi Cultural Complex, located in Tehran’s Azadi Square in an area of about 50,000 m². There are several fountains around the base of the tower and a museum underground.

Built with white marble stone from the Isfahan Province, it includes eight thousand blocks of stone. The stones were all located and supplied by Ghanbar Rahimi, whose knowledge of the quarries was second to none and who was known as “Soltan e Sang e Iran” (Iran’s Sultan of Stone). The shape of each block was calculated by computer, and programmed to include all the instructions for the building’s work. The actual construction of the tower was carried out, and supervised by Iran’s finest master stonemason, Ghaffar Davarpanah Varnosfaderani. The main financing was provided by a group of five hundred Iranian industrialists. The inauguration took place on October 16, 1971.

The iconic Monument des Martyrs in Algiers (built, 1982) shows a strong influence by this monument, in its general design as well as its details.